How to keep your brain fit


Your brain is truly the most amazing part of your body. It comes up with creative ways to express your thoughts and emotions, coordinates movements from chopping onions to running an obstacle course, stores your most precious childhood memories, and solves the Sunday crossword. But it’s easy to take those powers for granted.

“Many people don’t start thinking about their brain health until they notice some cognitive changes and memory loss in their 60s or 70s,” says Elise Caccappolo, PhD, an associate professor of neuropsychology at Columbia University Medical Center in New York. “But there are many things you can do, starting as young as childhood, to keep your brain as healthy as possible throughout your lifetime. We know that intellectual pursuits, social interaction, and perhaps most importantly, physical activity are helpful in keeping one’s brain sharp.”

Healthy heart

The most important strategy, she says, is to work with your doctor to stay on top of your cardiovascular health. You want to keep blood moving easily through your heart and blood vessels. “High blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, smoking, and diabetes all increase the risk for developing neurodegenerative diseases by impeding blood flow to the brain,” she explains.

When artery walls get thick with plaque or “hardened,” a condition called atherosclerosis, it’s difficult to get enough blood to the brain and nurture its cells. This can also lead to ischemic stroke — when a blood clot forms in an artery, cutting off the blood supply to a section of the brain. That can cause temporary or even permanent brain damage.

A healthy, active lifestyle will go a long way toward keeping your blood flowing and avoiding those problems. So exercised regularly, don’t smoke, drink moderately, and kept their body mass index (BMI) below 25.

Plenty of quality sleep

A key way to keep your brain working is shut it off for 7-9 hours a night. “Sleep is the most important thing you can do to reset the brain, allow it to heal, and to restore mental health,” says Romie Mushtaq, MD, a neurologist and integrative medicine specialist.

New research shows that during sleep, the brain clears out toxins called beta-amyloids that can lead to Alzheimer’s and other forms of dementia. So do a digital detox; commit to the same bedtime each night; and turn off all electronics and screens at least 30-60 minutes before you hit the pillow; dump your worries; jot down any lingering concerns and a quick to-do list for tomorrow to help settle your brain; spend a moment meditating.  

Move your body

Walking for 30 minutes a day, taking a dance class, or going for a swim helps keep you slim and fit, and it could improve your cognitive health, too. Physically active adults scored higher on tests of memory and problem-solving.

Exercise boosts blood flow to the brain. And studies have shown it can increase the size of the hippocampus, the part of the brain responsible for memory, which naturally shrinks as you age. New research from Italy suggests that working your leg muscles may be key to getting the maximum brain benefit from physical activity.

Eat well

A diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids, low in saturated fat, full of the nutrients found in leafy green vegetables, along with whole grains can help keep your brain healthy throughout your life. For many people, this means following the Mediterranean diet, which emphasizes fish, fruits and vegetables, nuts, olive oil, and avocados, while limiting red meat. One treat to consider adding to your diet: dark chocolate. New research has found that the flavanols in cocoa beans can help improve memory and cognitive function.

Be social

Instead of watching Netflix or scrolling Facebook spend as much time as you can with friends because when you’re socializing, the blood circulates to several different parts of your brain as you’re listening and formulating responses.

And when you’re connecting with friends, you’re less likely to get depressed. Depression can hamper how well your brain works. If you’re depressed or anxious, the brain becomes so occupied with what-ifs and worries that it’s not able to give 100% to learning new things.

Try new things

Building new skills throughout your lifetime — how to cook Indian food, how to play an instrument, even learning the rules of new card games or traveling to an unfamiliar city — helps keep your brain healthy by constantly creating new connections between brain cells.

Challenging your brain essentially creates a backup system. The more intellectual stimulation you have, the more various neural circuits are used. And the more circuits you have, the harder it is for the changes associated with neurodegenerative diseases to manifest.