LONDON — British authorities apologized last Thursday after an investigation found that at least 161,000 mostly African and Indian military service personnel who died during World War I weren’t properly honoured due to “pervasive racism.” It said that number could possibly range up to 350,000.
The investigation found that those service members were either not commemorated by name or weren’t commemorated at all, according to a report commissioned by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Between 45,000 and 54,000 other casualties were “commemorated unequally.”
The treatment of these soldiers, who served in Africa, Asia and the Middle East, contrasts with that of the men and women who died in Europe. It also violates the principle that all war dead should be remembered in the same way because they all made the same enormous sacrifice.
“On behalf of the Commonwealth War Graves Commission and the government, both of the time and today, I want to apologize for the failures to live up to their founding principles all those years ago and express deep regret that it has taken so long to rectify the situation,” Defence Secretary Ben Wallace said in the House of Commons. “Whilst we can’t change the past, we can make amends and take action.”
The commission was created in 1917 to ensure that all who died in the service of the British Empire during World War I were identified and properly honoured. Its responsibilities were later expanded to include those who died during World War II, and it now oversees the graves of 1.7 million men and women who died during the two wars.
The commission appointed an independent panel to investigate claims of unequal treatment following a 2019 TV documentary presented by David Lammy, a lawmaker from the opposition Labour Party, that focused on the way African casualties were commemorated. One researcher who worked on the documentary said she had forwarded information about her concerns to the commission more than a decade earlier but no action was taken.
The investigation found that tens of thousands of service personnel who died in Africa, Asia and the Middle East either weren’t commemorated at all or were only honoured anonymously on collective memorials. Others had their names recorded on paper registers rather than stone monuments. The battlefield graves of thousands more were abandoned without the remains ever being identified.
In Europe, the commission attempted to identify all of the dead and bury their remains under identical white headstones that still dot cemeteries from France to Turkey. The names of those who couldn’t be identified were recorded on mass memorials.